It is well known that sleep disorders are harmful to people's health and performance, and growing evidence suggests that sleep deprivation (SD) can trigger neuroinflammation in the brain. The nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat protein-3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is reported to be relevant to the neuroinflammation induced by SD, but the regulatory signaling that governs the NLRP3 inflammasome in SD is still unknown. Meanwhile, whether the regulatory action of antidepressants in astrocytes could affect the neuroinflammation induced by SD also remains obscure. In this study, we were the first to discover that the antidepressant fluoxetine, a type of specific serotonin reuptake inhibitor widely used in clinical practice, could suppress the neuroinflammation and neuronal apoptosis induced by SD. The main findings from this study are as follows: (i) SD stimulated the expression of activated NLRP3 inflammasomes and the maturation of IL-1β/18 via suppressing the phosphorylation of STAT3 in astrocytes; (ii) SD decreased the activation of AKT and stimulated the phosphorylation of GSK-3β, which inhibited the phosphorylation of STAT3; (iii) the NLRP3 inflammasome expression stimulated by SD was partly mediated by the P2X7 receptor; (iv) an agonist of STAT3 could significantly abolish the expression of NLRP3 inflammasomes induced by an agonist of the P2X7 receptor in primary cultured astrocytes; (v) the administration of fluoxetine could reverse the stimulation of NLRP3 inflammasome expression and function by SD through elevating the activation of STAT3. In conclusion, our present research suggests the promising possibility that fluoxetine could ameliorate the neuronal impairment induced by SD.