Carlinoside is a unique compound well-known for its excellent curative potential in hepatitis. There is a substantial research gap regarding the medicinal use of carlinoside, as its concentrations are greatly variable (depending on locality). We cultivated Cajanus cajan using vermicompost as a major organic amendment at two locations (Sonitpur and Birbhum) with different soil types, but identical climate conditions. Sonitpur soils were richer in soil organic C (SOC), enzyme activation, and N/P content than Birbhum. However, vermi-treatment improved many soil properties (bulk density, water retention, pH, N/P/K, and enzyme activity) to narrow the locational gap in soil quality by 15–28%. We also recorded a many-fold increment in SOC storage capacities in both locations, which was significantly correlated with carlinoside, total phenol, and flavonoid contents in Cajanus leaves. This significantly up-regulated the carlinoside induced expression of the bilirubin-solubilizing UGT1A1enzyme in HepG2 cell and rat liver. Leaf extracts of vermicompost-aided plants could cure hepatitis in affected rat livers and in the HepG2 cell line. Accordingly, vermi-treatment is an effective route for the growth of Cajanus as a cash crop for biomedical applications and can produce a concurrent improvement in soil quality.