Mast cells are an exceptionally rich source of prostaglandin D2 (PGD2). PGD2 is pro-inflammatory and can cause bronchoconstriction. The enzyme cyclooxygenase (COX) is central to the generation of prostanoids such as PGD2. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) inhibit COX. COX exists as two isoforms, COX-1 and COX-2. The principal aim of this study was to establish whether COX-1 and/or COX-2 mediates PGD2 generation from human lung mast cells. Mast cells were isolated from human lung tissue and purified by flotation over Percoll and immunomagnetic bead separations. The cells were activated with anti-IgE or Stem Cell Factor (SCF). The generation of PGD2 was determined by ELISA. The effects of NSAIDs (aspirin, ibuprofen, diclofenac, naproxen, indomethacin), COX-1 selective (FR122047), and COX-2 selective (celecoxib) inhibitors on PGD2 generation were determined. The expression of COX-1 and COX-2 in mast cells was determined by Western blotting. All the NSAIDs tested abrogated stimulated PGD2 generation from mast cells except aspirin which was only weakly effective. FR122047 was an effective inhibitor of PGD2 generation (EC50 ˜25 nM) from mast cells whereas celecoxib was ineffective. Immunoblotting indicated that COX-1 was strongly expressed in all mast cell preparations while COX-2 expression was weak. No induction of COX-2 was observed following activation of mast cells. These findings indicate that COX-1 is the principal isoform involved in generating PGD2 from human lung mast cells. These studies provide insight into the potential behaviour of NSAIDs in the context of respiratory diseases.