Model-Based Assessments of CYP-Mediated Drug–Drug Interaction Risk of Alectinib: Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling Supported Clinical Development
Alectinib is a selective anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibitor approved for the treatment of ALK-positive non-small cell lung cancer. Alectinib and its major active metabolite M4 exhibited drug–drug interaction (DDI) potential through cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes CYP3A4 and CYP2C8 in vitro. Clinical relevance of the DDI risk was investigated as part of a rapid development program to fulfill the breakthrough therapy designation. Therefore, a strategy with a combination of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling and limited clinical trials focused on generating informative data for modeling was made to ensure extrapolation ability of DDI risk. The PBPK modeling has provided mechanistic insight into the low victim DDI risk of alectinib through CYP3A4 by a novel two-dimensional analysis for fmCYP3A4 and FG, and demonstrated negligible CYPs 2C8 and 3A4 enzyme-modulating effects at clinically relevant exposure. This work supports that alectinib can be prescribed without dose adjustment for CYP-mediated DDI liabilities.