Advances, innovations, and challenges for new and old infections of children and adolescents

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We are pleased to present in this 2017 journal review some critical updates of infectious disease (ID) in children and adolescents. This includes a follow up of our entire section on ZIKV last year; an introduction to two new rapidly growing areas, the use of megagenomics for diagnosis of ID; and the role of the microbiome in health and disease, which will have major impacts on the field of ID in children and beyond. We also highlight the challenge of identifying, treating, and reducing the growing epidemic of HIV and STD in adolescents and youth in the United States and globally, particularly in disenfranchised populations. We also have a timely review of recent developments in prevention of perinatal HIV based on the clinical trial results of the PROMISE study, and newer diagnostic assays and treatment regimens for pediatric tuberculosis as an old but still significant infection with high burden of disease and the challenge of the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains.
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