Exercise testing in heart failure: a contemporary discussion in an era of novel diagnostic techniques and biomarkers
AbstractPurpose of review
The purpose of this review is to highlight recent advances in the field of exercise testing for patients with heart failure.Recent findings
The importance of assessment of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and exercise testing in heart failure is highlighted in the consensus recommendation of the American Heart Association. Contemporary studies have validated the independent and incremental strength of CRF metrics in patients with heart failure and coronary artery disease. The use of respiratory gas analysis and imaging or hemodynamics during physical exercise is feasible and results in high prognostic utility across the continuum of heart failure. Understanding how CRF metrics complement existing and novel biomarkers and risk scores is an emerging subject of scientific inquiry.Summary
In the current era of personalized medicine, integrating CRF, imaging and circulating biomarkers will allow us to further develop individualized strategies for improving outcome in patients with heart failure.