Arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is defined as an abnormal communication between the high flow arterial system and the low flow venous network, which directly connects the arterial feeding vessels and the near draining veins without normal intervening capillary bed. Arteriovenous fistula incurs in preauricular region is exceeding rare. Most of these fistulae occur as a result of an iatrogenic injury, the volume is small, feeding and draining vessels of feeding and draining are simple, and can be cured easily. However, the treatment of the large and complicated AVF after incidental trauma in preauricular region is a challenge even for senior neurosurgeon. In this study, the authors discuss the management of a traumatic AVF through combined therapeutic method of surgical ligation and transarterial embolization. It is fed by ipsilateral superficial temporal artery, internal maxillary artery, posterior auricular artery, and their accessory branches and is drained by ipsilateral common facial vein and external jugular vein. Also the etiology, clinical manifestations, pathology, diagnosis, and management are summarized.Conclusion:
Large and complicated traumatic AVF in preauricular region is rare, often due from an injury in maxillofacial region, combined therapy needed.