Regenerative Endodontic Procedures among Endodontists: A Web-based Survey

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The protocols that endodontists implement for regenerative endodontic procedures (REPs) are unknown. The aim of this study was to examine current REP protocols among practicing endodontists in the United States.


A Web-based survey was sent to 4060 active members of the American Association of Endodontists (AAE). A total of 850 participants completed the survey, representing a 20.9% response rate.


Responses indicated 60% reported having performed REPs; most performed 1 to 3 per year. The most commonly selected source (60.8%) for the clinical protocol was the “AAE Clinical Considerations for a Regenerative Procedure.” Time constraints were the most common reason why 92.4% of respondents did not report their REP cases to the database; additionally, 15.5% were unaware of it. Almost half (49.8%) of the participants reported they would attempt an REP on a patient of any age. The most commonly used irrigants were >3% sodium hypochlorite at the first appointment and EDTA at the scaffold formation appointment. As the intracanal medicament, 52.2% used calcium hydroxide, whereas 23.5% used triple antibiotic paste. At the scaffold formation appointment, 77.1% used a local anesthetic without a vasoconstrictor, and 94.3% used a blood clot as the scaffold. Mineral trioxide aggregate was the coronal barrier most often selected. Considering factors most likely to encourage the use of REPs in the future, 79.8% reported the availability of good candidates followed by 40.1% who desired better evidence.


Based on the results of this survey, REP protocols appear to be heterogeneous and do not strictly conform to the “AAE Clinical Considerations for a Regenerative Procedure.”

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