Use of Ultrasound Contrast Agents in Relation to Percutaneous Interventional Procedures: A Systematic Review and Pictorial Essay
The aim of this article is to provide an inventory of the use of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in relation to percutaneous interventional procedures. The article is structured into a systematic literature review followed by a clinical part relating to percutaneous CEUS-guided procedures. A literature search identified 3109 records. After abstract screening, 55 articles were analyzed and supplemented with pictorial material to explain the techniques. In conclusion, the best-evidenced indications for CEUS-guided interventions are biopsy and ablation of inconspicuous or B-mode–invisible tumors, intraprocedural ablation control and follow-up, as well as percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography and drainage procedures.