Postoperative Mortality After Nonelective Surgery for Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients in the Era of Biologics

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Abstract

Objective:

The aim of the study was to analyze recent trends in the rate of nonelective surgery and corresponding mortality for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients since the rise of biologic use.

Background:

Modern biologic therapy has improved outcomes for IBD, but little is known about the impact on mortality rates after nonelective surgery.

Methods:

New York's Statewide Planning & Research Cooperative System was queried for hospital admissions for ulcerative colitis (UC) with concurrent colectomy and Crohn disease (CD) with concurrent small bowel resection or colectomy from 2000 to 2013. Mixed-effects analyses assessed patient, surgeon, and hospital-level factors and hospital-level variation associated with 30-day mortality after nonelective surgery.

Results:

Between 2000 to 2006 and 2007 to 2013, the number of unscheduled IBD-related admissions increased by 50% for UC and 41% for CD, but no change in the proportion of nonelective surgery cases was observed (UC=38% vs 38%; CD=45% vs 42%) among 15,837 intestinal resections (UC=5,297; CD=10,540). Nonelective surgery mortality rates between 2000 to 2006 and 2007 to 2013 were high and increased for UC (10.2% vs 15%) but decreased for CD (3.3% vs 2.2%). Nonelective surgery in 2007 to 2013 was associated with an 82% increased risk of 30-day mortality in UC cases (odds ratio: 1.82; confidence interval: 1.19–2.62). After controlling for patient-level factors, large hospital-level variation was observed with 23-fold difference in mortality for both UC and CD.

Conclusions:

Although nonelective IBD surgery rates have remained stable, associated 30-day mortality for UC has doubled in recent years despite advances in medical management. Current clinical decision-making and care pathways must be further evaluated to improve outcomes in this high-risk population.

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