Endocarditis in the setting of IDU: multidisciplinary management

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Abstract

Purpose of review

The purpose of this article is to provide a brief overview of the medical and surgical management of infective endocarditis secondary to IDU, with a focus on the underlying substance use disorder.

Recent findings

Patients with infective endocarditis secondary to IDU are often young with unique comorbidities including mental illness, chronic hepatitis C, HIV infection, which are often compounded by limited social and familial supports. The focus of management has been treatment of endocarditis using IV antibiotics alongside surgery. Surgical outcomes compare favorably with those of infective endocarditis in the general population but long-term outcomes of IDUs are significantly worse. This is primarily due to the high rate of recidivism of drug use and the risk of prosthetic valve infective endocarditis. Contemporary management of addiction utilizes an integrative approach, combining both pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic strategies while remaining patient-centered. Given the complexity of care required, we advocate for a multidisciplinary team-based approach including psychiatry, infectious disease, cardiology, cardiac surgery and social services.

Summary

Infective endocarditis secondary to IDU remains a medical and surgical challenge with dismal outcomes. Here we offer practical suggestions on the multidisciplinary management of this challenging and high-risk patient cohort.

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