The Effects of Known Cardioprotective Drugs on Proinflammatory Cytokine Secretion From Human Coronary Artery Endothelial Cells
Endothelial cell dysfunction in diabetes is involved in the pathogenesis and progression of premature atherosclerosis. High-dextrose has been shown to induce both oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress in cultured human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAEC).Study Question:
To determine whether or not several classes of cardioprotective drugs inhibit proinflammatory cytokine expression by HCAEC.Measures and Outcomes:
To determine the effects of high dextrose on expression of proinflammatory cytokines by HCAEC, cells were treated with either 5.5 mM or 27.5 mM dextrose for 24 hours and interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-2 (IL-2), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and tumor necrosis factor α were measured by enzyme immunoassay in the presence or absence of known cardioprotective drugs, including select β-blockers, statins, and renin-angiotensin system inhibitors.Results:
IL-1β levels increased significantly in cells treated with high dextrose; however, IL-6 and IL-8 levels did not change. Treatment of cells with carvedilol, atenolol, and propranolol decreased levels of all 3 cytokines in cells exposed to either 5.5 or 27.5 mM dextrose. Similar effects on IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 levels were observed when cells were treated with simvastatin, pravastatin, and the renin-angiotensin system inhibitors spironolactone, captopril, lisinopril, candesartan, and losartan. No Il-2 or tumor necrosis factor α expression was observed in any of the experiments indicating that HCAEC do not express these cytokines.Conclusions:
We conclude that each of the classes of drugs tested possess pleiotropic anti-inflammatory activities and are effective in both low- and high-dextrose–treated cells.