Benign Essential Blepharospasm: What We Know and What We Don’t

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Excerpt

Benign essential blepharospasm (BEB) is a cranial dystonia that can have debilitating functional and social effects. While previously considered a disease of psychogenic origin, much has been learned about the disease in the past 4 decades within the field of neurology and ophthalmology and several treatment advances have been made.
Despite this progress, several questions remain regarding the neurophysiology and genetic basis of the disease, as well as the effectiveness of treatments. Many patients with BEB remain difficult to treat. The purpose of the present chapter is to summarize what has been learned and has what yet to be discovered in this transitioning field of research.
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