Resveratrol Downregulates Biomarkers of Sepsis via Inhibition of Proteasome's Proteases
LPS is the main agonist of Gram-negative bacteria and initiates inflammation. We recently reported that plasmas from sepsis patients revealed increased levels of following group of biomarkers; VCAM-1, ICAM1, CRP, resistin, and proteasome LMP subunits. Our objective here was to compare effects of resveratrol (shown to be a non-specific proteasome inhibitor by us) and a known LMP7 inhibitor (ONX-0914, specific inhibitor) on proteasome's activities, as well as on inflammatory markers mentioned above in human blood monocytes. Using fluorescence-based assays on blood monocytes purified proteasomes, resveratrol (0–100 μM) inhibited all three protease activities, predominantly LMP7. Similarly, resveratrol inhibited all three protease activities using cell-based luminescence assay. In contrast, ONX-0914 was more selective and potent for LMP7 activity. Resveratrol and ONX-0914, both significantly inhibited expression of LPS-induced biomarkers mentioned above in CD14+ monocytes. Moreover, resveratrol itself, as well as in combination with LPS, accumulated pIκBα in CD14+ monocytes. Collectively, our data suggest that resveratrol is a less potent inhibitor of all three; CT-like (predominantly LMP7), T-like and PA protease activities and is less toxic to human monocytes than ONX-0914 (a selector inhibitor of only LMP7) as observed by an autophagy detection kit. Also, resveratrol reduces LPS-induced inflammatory cytokine expression by decreasing the translocation of NF-κB due to an increase in inhibitor pIκBα. Therefore, resveratrol can be used to curb inflammation in diseased states like sepsis and other disorders.