Diversity and complexity of flavodiiron NO/O2 reductases

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Abstract

Flavodiiron proteins (FDPs) are a family of enzymes endowed with nitric oxide (NO) or oxygen reductase activities, forming the innocuous nitrous oxide (N2O) or water molecules, respectively. FDPs are widespread in the three life kingdoms, and have a modular nature, being each monomer minimally constituted by a metallo-β-lactamase-like domain containing a catalytic diiron centre, followed by a flavodoxin one, with a flavin mononucleotide. Since their discovery, additional domains have been found in FDPs, attached to the C-terminus, and containing either extra metal (iron) centers or extra flavin binding modules. Following an extensive analysis of genomic databases, we identified novel domain compositions, and proposed a new classification of FDPs in eight classes based on the nature and number of extra domains.

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