Cholesterol embolization syndrome: An under-recognized entity in cardiovascular interventions.
Cholesterol embolization syndrome (CES) is a multi-systemic disease caused by embolization of atherosclerotic plaque contents from proximal large-caliber artery to distal small to medium arteries, occurring spontaneously or more commonly after vascular intervention. This report is a comprehensive review of the reported cases of CES found in our literature search. We discuss the risk factors, clinical manifestations, management, and prognosis of CES. The major predisposing factors for CES include older age, male sex, atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk factors, anticoagulation, and femoral access route. The composite incidence of atheroembolic renal disease was 92% and mortality 63%. Our review highlights the importance to recognize this disease entity for the cardiologist and nephrologist.