Examining the Factor Structure and Reliability of the Safe Patient Handling Perception Scale: An Initial Validation Study

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Perceiving imminent safe patient handling and movement (SPH&M) dangers may reduce musculoskeletal (MSK) injuries for nurses in the workplace. The purpose of this study is to develop and validate the 17-item Safe Patient Handling Perception Scale (SPHPS) as an evaluation instrument assessing perceptual risk of MSK injury based on SPH&M knowledge, practice, and resource accessibility in the workplace.


Data were collected from a convenience sample (N = 117) of nursing employees at a Veteran Affairs Medical Center. Factor analysis identified three factors: knowledge, practice, and accessibility.


The SPHPS demonstrated high levels of reliability, supported by acceptable alpha scores (SPHM knowledge [α = .866], SPHM practices [α = .901], and access to SPHM resources [α = .855]), in addition to the relatively low standard error of measurement scores (SEM).


The study outcomes suggest that the SPHPS is a valid and reliable tool that can measure participants’ perceived risk factors for MSK injuries.

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