This study investigated bactericidal activity of 0.05 to 0.50% calcium oxide (CaO) against planktonic cells in tryptic soy broth (TSB) and biofilms of Listeria monocytogenes on eggshell surfaces. The bactericidal activity of CaO against planktonic cells and biofilms of L. monocytogens significantly (P < 0.05) increased log reductions with increasing concentrations of CaO. Exposure to 0.05 to 0.50% CaO for one min reduced planktonic cells in TSB cell suspensions by 0.47 to 3.86 log10CFU/mL and biofilm cells on the shell surfaces by 0.14 to 2.32 log10CFU/cm2. The Hunter colors of eggshells (“L” for lightness, “a” for redness, and “b” for yellowness), shell thickness (puncture force), and sensory quality (egg taste and yolk color) were not changed by 0.05 to 0.50% CaO treatment. The nonlinear Weibull model was used to calculate CR = 3 values as the CaO concentration of 3 log (99.9%) reduction for planktonic cells (R2 = 0.96, RMSE = 0.26) and biofilms (R2 = 0.95, RMSE = 0.18) of L. monocytogens. The CR = 3 value, 0.31% CaO for planktonic cells, was significantly (P < 0.05) lower than 0.57% CaO for biofilms. CaO could be an alternative disinfectant to reduce planktonic cells and biofilms L. monocytogenes on eggshell surface in egg processing plants.