Impact and outcomes of nutritional support team intervention in patients with gastrointestinal disease in the intensive care unit

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Abstract

Nutritional support has become an important intervention for critically ill patients. Many studies have reported on the effects of nutritional support for the patients within the intensive care unit (ICU); however, no studies have specifically assessed patients with gastrointestinal diseases who may have difficulty absorbing enteral nutrition (EN) in the ICU.

Sixty-two patients with gastrointestinal disease were admitted to the ICU between August 2014 and August 2016 at a single tertiary university hospital. We analyzed 2 different patient groups in a retrospective cohort study: those who received nutritional support team (NST) intervention and those who did not.

Forty-four (71.0%) patients received nutritional support in ICU and 18 (29.0%) did not. Variables including male sex, high albumin or prealbumin level at the time of ICU admission, and short transition period into EN showed statistically significant association with lower mortality on the univariate analysis (all P < .05). Multivariate analysis revealed that longer length of hospital stay (P = .013; hazard ratio [HR], 0.972; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.951–0.994), shorter transition into EN (P = .014; HR, 1.040; 95% CI, 1.008–1.072), higher prealbumin level (P = .049; HR, 0.988; 95% CI, 0.976–1.000), and NST intervention (P = .022; HR, 0.356; 95% CI, 0.147–0.862) were independent prognostic factors for lower mortality.

In conclusion, NST intervention related to early initiated EN, and high prealbumin levels are beneficial to decrease mortality in the acutely ill patients with GI disease.

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