Beverage consumption and risk of ulcerative colitis: Systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological studies
Epidemiological studies have provided controversial evidence between beverage consumption and the risk of ulcerative colitis (UC). This study aimed to determine the role of beverage consumption in the development of UC. A systematic search was conducted in public databases to identify all relevant studies, and study-specific relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were pooled using a random-effects model. Sixteen studies were identified with a total of 3689 cases and 335,339 controls. Alcohol consumption showed no significant association with UC risk (RR for the highest vs the lowest consumption level: 0.95, 95% CI: 0.65–1.39). Coffee consumption tended to be inversely associated with UC risk (RR: 0.58, 95% CI: 0.33–1.05), but it was not significant and confounded by smoking adjustment. Soft drinks consumption was associated with UC risk (RR: 1.69, 95% CI: 1.24–2.30), and tea consumption was inversely associated with UC risk (RR: 0.69, 95% CI: 0.58–0.83). In conclusion, high consumption of soft drinks might increase the risk of UC, while tea consumption might decrease the risk.