Predicting Pressure Injury Risk in Pediatric Patients: The Braden QD Scale

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Abstract

Objective

To describe the development and initial testing of the Braden QD Scale to predict both immobility-related and medical device–related pressure injury risk in pediatric patients.

Study design

This was a multicenter, prospective cohort study enrolling hospitalized patients, preterm to 21 years of age, on bedrest for at least 24 hours with a medical device in place. Receiver operating characteristic curves using scores from the first observation day were used to characterize Braden QD Scale performance, including areas under the curve (AUC) with 95% CIs.

Results

Eight centers enrolled 625 patients. A total of 86 hospital-acquired pressure injures were observed in 49 (8%) patients: 22 immobility-related pressure injuries in 14 (2%) patients and 64 medical device–related pressure injuries in 42 (7%) patients. The Braden QD Scale performed well in predicting immobility-related and medical device–related pressure injuries in the overall sample, with an AUC of 0.78 (95% CI 0.73-0.84). At a cutoff score of 13, the AUC was 0.72 (95% CI 0.67-0.78), providing a sensitivity of 0.86 (95% CI 0.76-0.92), specificity of 0.59 (95% CI 0.55-0.63), positive predictive value of 0.15 (95% CI 0.11-0.19), negative predictive value of 0.98 (95% CI 0.97-0.99), and a positive likelihood ratio of 2.09 (95% CI 0.95-4.58).

Conclusions

The Braden QD Scale reliably predicts both immobility-related and device-related pressure injuries in the pediatric acute care environment and will be helpful in monitoring care and in guiding resource use in the prevention of hospital-acquired pressure injuries.

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