Comorbidity of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Patients with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

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Abstract

Objectives

To determine the prevalence of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and to characterize patients having both.

Study design

Diabetes comorbidity was recorded in the National Pediatric Rheumatologic Database since 2012. Data from the North Rhine-Westphalian diabetes registry served as the reference population for the prevalence of diabetes in the general population. The National Pediatric Rheumatologic Database data were indirectly standardized for age and sex for comparison with the general population. The diabetes prevalence ratio was calculated using the Poisson regression model.

Results

The analysis included 12 269 patients with JIA. A total of 58 patients had comorbid T1D, and the diabetes prevalence was 0.5%. The mean age was 11.6 years at the time of documentation, and the mean disease duration was 4.2 years. Compared with the general population, the prevalence of diabetes in patients with JIA was significantly increased (prevalence ratio 1.76 [95% CI 1.34; 2.28], P < .001). The onset of diabetes in patients with JIA was earlier than that reported in the reference data. Sixty-three percent of patients developed T1D before JIA. On average, diabetes onset was 56 months before the onset of JIA. Patients who first developed JIA developed T1D on average 40 months later. The majority of patients had not received disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs before diabetes onset.

Conclusions

T1D occurs more frequently in patients with JIA than in the general population. The likelihood of T1D occurrence appears to be slightly higher before JIA manifestation and without disease-modifying antirheumatic drug therapy after JIA onset.

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