According to structures and functions of lectins found in shrimp, they are classified into seven types, namely, L-type, C-type, P-type, M-type, galectins, fibrinogen-like domain lectins, and calnexin/calreticulin. Until now, the researches of shrimp lectins are mainly focused on C-type lectins. In this study, we identified a new L-type lectin, designated as LvLTLC1, from the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. The cDNA of LvLTLC1 is 1184 bp with an open reading frame of 990 bp encoding a protein of 329 amino acids. The LvLTLC1 protein contained a putative signal peptide, an L-type lectin-like domain, and a transmembrane helix region. Phylogenetic analysis showed that LvLTLC1 belonged to VIP36-like family. LvLTLC1 was expressed in all examined tissues but had higher expression level in gills and hepatopancreas than other tissues. LvLTLC1 expression was up-regulated after immune challenge by Vibrio harveyi and lipopolysaccharide. The recombinant LvLTLC1 agglutinated Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative bacteria (V. harveyi, V. parahaemolyticus, V. alginolyticus, V. cholerae, V. vulnificus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, P. fluorescens) in a calcium-independent manner. Recombinant LvLTLC1 exerted the ability of enhancing the clearance of V. harveyi injected in shrimp. Our results indicated that LvLTLC1 functions in anti-pathogen innate immunity of shrimp.