Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf. belongs to the family Rutaceae in the genus Poncirus. Its fruits are widely used to alleviate symptoms of various disorders. The mature fruit (MF) possesses anticancer and antiinflammatory activities. Extracts of the dried, immature fruit, Poncirus fructus (PF) are widely used as a traditional medicine for ameliorating symptoms of digestive dysfunction in East Asia. Molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the effects of MF and PF extracts on cancer, inflammation, and gastrointestinal disorders have been extensively studied in the past decade. This review summarizes recent findings on the anticancer and antiinflammatory effects of MF and the prokinetic effects of PF. Although the therapeutic effects of MF and PF have been clearly elucidated, in-depth further clinical studies are still required to completely verify the clinical efficacy and safety of the fruits of P. trifoliata (L.) Raf.