Treatment Approach to Severe Microgenia Cases: Combined Use of Osseous and Implant Genioplasty

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Abstract

Introduction:

As well as the chin is an important esthetic unit of the facial structure, it is also the region having a key role in the appearance of the face. Correction of cosmetic and functional deformities that may occur in this region because of serious hypoplasia (microgenia) is performed by chin augmentation. Chin augmentation is most frequently performed via implant or osseous genioplasty in the literature. Both 2 techniques have their own advantages and disadvantages. In the literature, various studies comparing these 2 techniques and their long-term results are present, but in some severe microgenia cases, these techniques can be insufficient only for augmentation. In such cases, combined use of implant and osseous genioplasty techniques can come up and data and experiences regarding such combined uses are limited in the literature. In our study, we aim to report our experiences and long-term results regarding 3 cases to whom chin augmentation combined with implant and osseous method is applied because of serious chin hypoplasia (microgenia).

Method:

Three patients to whom chin augmentation combined with osseous and implant genioplasty was applied because of severe microgenia between 2011 and 2016 are included in our study. Before the chin restoration, orthognathic surgery or maxillomandibular distraction applications owing to existing obstructive sleep apnea, malocclusion, or facial asymmetry, are performed in the patients. In preoperative period, chin augmentation amount required is planned for all the patients via cephalometric analysis and the operations of all the patients are performed under general anesthesia via intraoral access.

Results:

Among 3 patients, 2 were male and 1 was female and their mean age was 27.3 years (22–33). In all the patients, primarily horizontal subapical sliding osteotomy was performed and advancement was performed. After osteotomy, mean 8-mm osseous advancement was obtained and Medpor implant was placed in the chin at the same session for additional augmentation. Mean advancement amount obtained by the Medpor implants was 9 mm. A total average of 17-mm augmentation was obtained in the patients via osseous and implant genioplasty. The reflection of this advancement amount on the soft tissue was measured as 13 mm. Mean follow-up period is 24 months and the patients did not encounter with a major complication in the postoperative period. In the postoperative period, early-period band application was performed at the chin of the patients to reduce edema and to support immobilization.

Conclusions:

Chin contour is an important part of facial aesthetics and osseous genioplasty is the ideal treatment option for the correction of most chin deformities. However, in some serious microgenia cases, osseous genioplasty may be insufficient to correct the existing deformity. In such cases, it is seen that the combined correction procedures to be applied together with the implant use can be applicable in terms of the safety and its long-term results.

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