Feasibility of Bone Perfusion Evaluation in Cadavers Using Indocyanine Green Fluorescence Angiography
Bone perfusion evaluation methods in cadaver studies have yet to be established. The aim of this report was to introduce and validate the feasibility of indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence angiography for evaluation of bone perfusion in the femoral medial condyle in cadavers. In 4 fresh nonembalmed cadavers (2 female), the descending genicular artery was dissected and carefully cannulated bilaterally. A 10 mL solution containing 5 mL ICG solution and 5 mL methylene blue solution was injected into the descending genicular artery. After the injection, the medial femoral condyle was cut with an oscillating saw. A photograph was taken of the cut ends of the bone. The cut ends of the bones were observed using a near-infrared camera. Images corresponding to the previously taken photographs of the cut ends were captured for comparative analysis. After injection of methylene blue and ICG, the blue dye could be seen in the periosteum in all specimens, but not inside the cortex or the cancellous region of the bone. When observed with ICG fluorescence angiography, however, the cancellous region was highlighted through small perforators penetrating the periosteum. Perfusion inside the medial femoral condyle in cadavers was confirmed using ICG fluorescence angiography. Our method can be especially beneficial in confirming the bone perfusion of a new bone flap based on a particular artery, both in cadavers as well as in patients, because ICG can be injected into specific arteries.