Randomized controlled trial comparing the effects of usual gas release, active aspiration, and passive-valve release on abdominal distension in patients who have undergone laparoscopic cholecystectomy

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Abstract

Introduction:

Residual, intra-abdominal CO2 contributes to abdominal distension and pain after laparoscopic surgery. The study was designed to assess recovery after gas release in patients who have undergone laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC).

Methods:

A total of 142 patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomly divided into three groups: (i) group 1 (control group), gas release from the surgical wound without port release (n = 47); (ii) group 2, active gas aspiration via a subdiaphragmatic port (n = 48); and (iii) group 3, passive-valve release via a subdiaphragmatic port valve opening (n = 47). Abdominal distension and shoulder pain levels were assessed postoperatively.

Results:

The active aspiration group had significantly reduced postoperative abdominal distensions at 30 min, 4, and 24 h compared with the control group (50.0% vs 80.9%, 43.8% vs 76.6%, 33.3% vs 57.4%, respectively; P < 0.05). Similarly, the passive-valve release group had significantly reduced postoperative abdominal distensions at 4 and 24 h compared with the control group (51.1% vs 76.6%, 57.4% vs 36.2%; P < 0.05). Both intervention groups had significantly reduced postoperative shoulder pain at 4 and 24 h compared with the control group (P < 0.001). In addition, the postoperative ambulation times for the active aspiration group were significantly shorter than those for the control and passive-valve release groups (P < 0.001).

Conclusion:

Releasing residual CO2 from the intra-abdominal cavity at the end of laparoscopic cholecystectomy by either the active aspiration or passive-valve release technique is an effective way to reduce postoperative abdominal distension and shoulder pain.

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