Isolation in small populations of Wayampi Amerindians promotes endemicity and homogenisation of their faecal virome, but its distribution is not entirely random

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Abstract

The isolated community of the Wayampi Amerindians has been extensively studied for the presence of beta lactamase-producing enterobacteria and their gut microbiota. However, no information about their virome was available. This study tries to establish potential associations between the virome and diverse epidemiological data, through the metagenomic study of the faecal prophages and DNA viruses from 31 samples collected in 2010. Taxonomic assignments, composition, abundance and diversity analyses were obtained to characterise the virome and were compared between groups according to several demographic, environmental and medical data. Prophages outnumbered viruses. Composition and abundance of virome indicated relatively low variability. Diversity within samples showed no significant differences, regardless of the group comparison. Significant differences were observed in the beta diversity among samples according to hospitalisation and gender, but not by extended spectrum β-lactamase carriage, antibiotic intake or possession of pets, although some viruses differed in some cases (e.g. immunodeficiency-associated stool virus associated with antibiotic intake). The faecal virome of adult Wayampi is more homogeneous than that from western populations. Not a single factor analysed can explain alone the observed distribution of the virome, but differences by gender (fewer variability in females than males) may reflect differences in life habits and work.

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