The effect of the solution-focused approach on nutrition–exercise attitudes and behaviours of overweight and obese adolescents: Randomised controlled trial

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Abstract

Aims and objectives

To assess the effect of the solution-focused approach interview technique on overweight/obese adolescents’ nutrition–exercise attitudes and behaviours.

Background

Obesity is a serious health problem for all age groups, particularly adolescents; therefore, it is important for adolescents to develop healthy nutrition habits and acquire exercise behaviours. Unless healthy nutrition–exercise behaviours are acquired, obesity can develop in adolescence, continue in adulthood. Focusing on solutions can be effective for overweight/obese adolescents to develop healthy nutrition–exercise behaviours.

Design

A pretest–post-test randomised controlled trial design was used.

Methods

The study included 32 overweight/obese adolescents (16 for intervention group, 16 for control group) aged 12–13 years who attended a health centre and met the inclusion criteria. The solution-focused Approach interview technique was applied to the intervention group. Eight solution-focused interviews were conducted with each adolescent at 2-week intervals (interview length 30–45 min). For each group, anthropometric, metabolic measurement follow-ups were conducted in the first and sixth months. The data were evaluated using independent samples t test, Mann–Whitney U, Wilcoxon test, respectively, for normally, non-normally distributed variables. The categorical variables were compared using chi-square test. The value p < .05 was accepted to be statistically significant.

Results

The study concluded that the intervention group's healthy nutrition–exercise attitude and behaviour scale scores were higher in the sixth month follow-up; difference between the follow-ups was significant (p < .001). The study also showed that the intervention group lost 2.6–11 kg, while the control group gained 2.9–9 kg. A significant positive relationship was found between the nutrition–exercise attitude and behaviour scores.

Conclusion

Eight interviews during 6 months were adequate for positive development of their nutrition–exercise attitudes and behaviours; significant decrease in their weight, BMI percentile, BMI-SDS values; and normal metabolic values.

Relevance to clinical practice

The solution-focused approach interview technique enabled overweight/obese adolescents’ weight and blood glucose to be controlled against obesity. It helped them acquire healthy nutrition–exercise behaviours. Thus, it can be used as support for treatment of obesity in adolescents.

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