Human neonatal Fc receptor as a new potential antibody binding protein for antibody immobilization.
A critical challenge in producing an antibody-based assay with the highest reproducibility and sensitivity is the strategy to immobilize antibodies to solid phase. To date, numerous methods of antibody immobilization were reported but each was subjected to its advantages and limitations. The current study proposes a new potential antibody binding protein, the human neonatal fragment crystallizable (Fc) receptor. This protein has shown its high affinity to the Fc of antibody either in vivo or in vitro. Human neonatal Fc receptor is a heterodimer constructed by p51 α-heavy chain and β2-microglobulin light chain; however, the binding sites toward the antibody are located in the p51 α-heavy chain. Hence, vector cloning and recombinant protein expression were carried out to express the p51 α-heavy chain of the human neonatal Fc receptor (hFcRn-α). The recombinant protein expressed, hFcRn-α, was adopted to pin rabbit IgG against hepatitis B virus surface antigen to a solid phase. A sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was further developed to evaluate the efficiency of hFcRn-α-directed immobilization in antigen detection. The result was compared with the conventional physical adsorption method. The findings demonstrated that human neonatal Fc receptor was efficient in pinning antibodies and generating higher signals compared with the physical adsorption of antibody.