Different Genotypes of Adhesion Operon Genes in Staphylococcus epidermidis Isolates From Various Ocular Infections

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Abstract

Background:

Staphylococcus epidermidis is one of the common causes of bacterial keratitis and post-operation infections. One of the most important virulence factors of S. epidermidis is biofilm formation. Poly-N-acetylglucosamine (PNAG) production is critical for biofilm formation in S. epidermidis. The intercellular adhesion (ica) operon is formed by icaA, icaD, icaB, and icaC genes, which participate in the biosynthesis of PNAG. Strains of S. epidermidis from different infections show different genotypes in relation to adhesion operon genes. Therefore, regarding the fact that the pathogenic strain in each community has unique genotypes, this study investigated the relation between ica operon genotypes and various ocular infections. However, the correlation between the ica operon genes and the mecA gene was analyzed in the isolates.

Methods:

For this study, samples of the conjunctiva, cornea, and intraocular fluid of patients with ocular infection were collected. After culture and incubation, detection of S. epidermidis was performed using biochemical and coagulase tests. The antibiotic susceptibility of the bacteria was evaluated by the disk diffusion method. After this, DNA was extracted from the bacteria and the presence of icaA, icaD, is256, and mecA genes was analyzed using polymerase chain reaction.

Results:

All 50 coagulase-negative Staphylococcus samples isolated from different eye infections were characterized as S. epidermidis. Most of the samples (36%) were isolated from the cornea and the others were, respectively, from the conjunctiva (24%), vitreous (20%), anterior chamber (8%), eyelid (6%), and nasolacrimal duct (6%). The icaA, icaD, and is256 genes were detected with different genotypes in isolates from keratitis and endophthalmities compared with conjunctivitis. Overall, the most isolated genotype from ocular infections was icaA+. icaD+. is256+. (46%). Most of the isolates (82.60%) had mecA, icaA, and icaD genes simultaneously, which indicates a strong relationship between the adhesion genes and the antibiotic resistance gene.

Conclusions:

The adhesion operon genes were observed with different genotypes in S. epidermidis samples isolated from various ocular infections.

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