Interplay of foot and mouth disease virus with cell-mediated and humoral immunity of host
Foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes a communicable disease of cloven hoofed animals, resulting in major economic losses during disease outbreaks. Like other members of the Picornaviridae FMDV has a relatively short infectious cycle; initiation of infection and dissemination, with production of infectious virions occurs in less than a week. The components of innate immunity as well as cell-mediated and humoral immunity play a crucial role in control of FMDV. However, it has been shown in vitro using a mouse model that FMDV has evolved certain mechanisms to counteract host immune responses ensuring its survival and spread. The viral leader proteinase, L pro, deters interferon beta (IFN-β) mRNA synthesis, thus, inhibiting host cell translation. Another viral proteinase, 3C pro, disrupts host cell transcription by cleaving histone H3. A transient lymphopenia in swine as a consequence of FMDV infection has also been observed, but the mechanism involved and viral protein(s) associated with this process are not clearly understood. In this review, we have covered the interaction of FMDV with different immune cells including lymphocytes and antigen presenting cells and their consequences.