The role of distal tubule and collecting duct sodium reabsorption in sunitinib-induced hypertension

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Abstract

Objective:

Antiangiogenic receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (RTKI) induce arterial hypertension which may limit their use. Renal fractional sodium excretion (FENa) is reduced in early RTKI-induced hypertension, whereas fractional lithium excretion is unaltered. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that activated distal tubule and collecting duct sodium reabsorption contributes to RTKI-induced hypertension.

Methods:

Amiloride-sensitive and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ)-sensitive fractional sodium reabsorption (FRNa) and renal epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) as well as sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC) abundances were determined in sunitinib-treated and control rats. The antihypertensive effects of amiloride and HCTZ were investigated by radiotelemery.

Results:

After 4 days of treatment, mean arterial pressure was 20 mmHg higher, FENa was lower (0.32 ± 0.08% vs. 0.65 ± 0.14%; P < 0.05), and renal medullary-ENaC protein abundance was higher in sunitinib-treated rats than in controls. Amiloride-sensitive FRNa was 2.37 ± 0.52% in sunitinib-treated rats vs. 2.66 ± 0.44% in controls (n.s.). HCTZ increased FENa by a similar magnitude without affecting amiloride-sensitive FRNa in both groups. After 14 days of treatment, renal medullary β-ENaC protein abundance was higher in rats that received sunitinib than in controls, whereas α-ENaC, γ-ENaC, and NCC abundances were similar in both groups. Amiloride and HCTZ reduced the sunitinib-induced mean arterial pressure rise by 8 ± 3 mmHg (P < 0.05) and 12 ± 2 mmHg (P < 0.05), respectively, without additive effects when combined.

Conclusion:

ENaC-dependent and thiazide-sensitive sodium-retaining mechanisms are not overactive in sunitinib-induced hypertension but ENaC blockers and in particular thiazides may be suitable for its treatment.

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