Epidemiology of ocular disorders presumed to be inherited in three small Italian dog breeds in Italy
To describe the prevalence and the types of eye disorders that are known or presumed to be inherited (KP-HED) in three small Italian dog breeds.Animals
Three small Italian dog breeds: Maltese, Bolognese, and Italian Greyhound.Procedures
All dogs of the breeds selected for this prospective observational study that underwent a complete ophthalmic examination between 1994 and 2015 were included. General and proportional KP-HED prevalence with 95% confidence intervals were reported.Results
Three hundred and six of 462 dogs were affected by at least one KP-HED (66.2%; 95% CI: 61.8%–70.4%). In the entire population, the five most common KP-HED were cataract (n = 122; rate on the total number of KP-HED: 31.4%), entropion (n = 56; 14.4%), keratoconjunctivitis sicca (n = 33; 8.5%), retinal dysplasia (n = 24; 6.2%), and persistent pupillary membrane (iris to iris) (n = 21; 5.4%). The most common KP-HED in each breed were cataracts in the Maltese (35.1%) and in the Bolognese (24.2%), and presentation of vitreous in the anterior chamber in the Italian Greyhound (46.7%).Conclusions
Clinicians should be aware of KP-HED that commonly affect three small Italian dog breeds. Breed standards should be reconsidered, and breeding programs should be directed at limiting such disorders.