Pediatric Brain: Gadolinium Deposition in Dentate Nucleus and Globus Pallidus on Unenhanced T1-Weighted Images Is Dependent on the Type of Contrast Agent

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Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this study was to identify the signal intensity (SI) changes in the dentate nucleus (DN) and the globus pallidus (GP) on unenhanced T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images after multiple administration of gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) in children and compare those changes between linear and macrocyclic GBCAs.

Materials and Methods

This retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board and the requirement for informed consent was waived. We identified 92 children who underwent at least 4 consecutive MR examinations exclusively using either linear GBCA (gadodiamide or gadopentetate dimeglumine, n = 41) or macrocyclic GBCA (gadoterate meglumine, n = 51). Signal intensity ratio changes in the DN to pons and GP to thalamus between the first and last MR examinations were calculated.

Results

The SI ratios in the linear group increased significantly between the first and last MR examinations (mean difference: DN to pons, 0.0461 ± 0.0480, P < 0.001; GP to thalamus, 0.0332 ± 0.0385, P < 0.001), but not in the macrocyclic group (mean difference: DN to pons, −0.0010 ± 0.0371, P = 0.855; GP to thalamus, 0.0007 ± 0.0294, P = 0.867). In the linear regression analysis, the numbers of administrations of gadodiamide and gadopentetate dimeglumine were highly associated with the differences in SI ratios (DN to pons, P < 0.001 and P = 0.003; GP to thalamus, P < 0.001 and P = 0.002, respectively).

Conclusion

The SIs of the DN and GP on unenhanced T1-weighted images increased after serial administrations of linear GBCA, but not macrocyclic GBCA, in children. The number of linear GBCA administration had a linear association with the SI changes in the DN and GP.

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