Patellar instability is defined by clinical and radiologic criteria. The surgical treatment is aimed at restoring the congruence of the patellofemoral articulation and correcting extensor mechanism malalignment, to prevent recurrence of dislocation. The standard soft-tissue procedures are lateral release and vastus medialis advancement and medial patello femoral ligament plasty. Bony procedures are frequently performed in addition to soft-tissue surgery, to realign the extensor mechanism by means of tibial tubercle medialization, or to correct the patellar index in patella alta. In a smaller number of patients, the trochlea may be reshaped, by elevating the lateral trochlear facet or by lowering the floor of the sulcus. The morphologic abnormalities encountered are studied and quantified in the light of preoperative investigations (conventional radiographs and computed tomography), and addressed at surgery using the technique or techniques most appropriate for the management of the individual patient’s pattern.