A Randomized Controlled Trial Determining Variances in Ostomy Skin Conditions and the Economic Impact (ADVOCATE Trial)
To compare ostomy-related costs and incidence of peristomal skin complications (PSCs) for ceramide-infused ostomy skin barriers and control skin barriers.DESIGN:
The ADVOCATE trial is a multi-centered randomized controlled trial, and double-blinded international study with an adaptive design.SUBJECTS AND SETTING:
The sample comprised 153 adults from 25 sites from the United States, Canada, and Europe. Participants were seen in hospital and outpatient care settings.METHODS:
Data were collected by investigators at each site during face-to-face visits and during telephone check-in calls between visits. Cost of care data were collected using a questionnaire developed specifically for the study. The peristomal skin was assessed using the Ostomy Skin Tool. Health-related quality of life was measured using the SF-12v2. Patient-reported outcomes were collected using a patient-centered study-specific questionnaire. Cost of care was analyzed via analysis of covariance comparing total cost of care for 12 weeks between the 2 groups. The incidence of PSC was analyzed via Barnard's exact test comparing the incidence of PSCs between the control and treatment groups. Tertiary outcomes were exploratory in nature and not statistically powered.RESULTS:
Use of the ceramide-infused barrier significantly reduced stoma-related cost of care over a 12-week period, resulting in a $36.46 decrease in cost (14% relative decrease). The adjusted average costs were $223.73 in the treatment group and $260.19 in the control group (P = .017). The overall incidence of PSCs in the study was 47.7%; PSC incidence was 40.5% for the treatment group versus 55.4% for controls (P = .069, 95% confidence interval of the difference: −1.2 to 30.4). Significantly more participants using the ceramide-infused skin barrier were “very satisfied” with barrier performance (75% vs 55%; P = .033), prevention of leakage (63% vs 38%; P < .01), and prevention of itching (53% vs 31%; P = .016). General postoperative improvement in health-related quality of life was noted in both groups.CONCLUSIONS:
The use of a ceramide-infused barrier significantly decreased cost and increased satisfaction with patient-reported outcomes.