Role of DNA copy number variation in dyslipidemias

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Abstract

Purpose of review

DNA copy number variations (CNVs) are quantitative structural rearrangements that include deletions, duplications, and higher order amplifications. Because of technical limitations, the contribution of this common form of genetic variation to regulation of lipid metabolism and dyslipidemia has been underestimated.

Recent findings

Recent literature involving CNVs and dyslipidemias has focused mainly on rare CNVs causing familial hypercholesterolemia, and a common CNV polymorphism as the major determinant of lipoprotein(a) plasma concentrations. Additionally, there is tantalizing evidence of largely uninvestigated but plausible presence of CNVs underlying other dyslipidemias. We also discuss the future role of improved technologies in facilitating more economic, routine CNV assessment in dyslipidemias.

Summary

CNVs account for large proportion of human genetic variation and are already known to contribute to susceptibility of dyslipidemias, particularly in about 10% of familial hypercholesterolemia patients. Increasing availability of clinical next-generation sequencing and bioinformatics presents a cost-effective opportunity for novel CNV discoveries in dyslipidemias.

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