Functional Capacity but Not Early Uptake of Cardiac Rehabilitation Predicts Readmission in Patients With Metabolic Syndrome

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Abstract

Background:

Phase II cardiac rehabilitation reduces hospital readmissions and cardiovascular disease risk factors and improves functional capacity. Cardiovascular disease risk factors double with patients with metabolic syndrome, a population less likely to adhere to cardiac rehabilitation.

Purpose:

The aim of this study was to determine relationships between cardiac rehabilitation uptake timing, demographic variables and functional capacity, and readmission in patients with metabolic syndrome.

Methods:

This retrospective, medical records study involved 353 patients with metabolic syndrome who subsequently received cardiac rehabilitation. Logistic regression was used to examine relationships between time from discharge to cardiac rehabilitation uptake and readmission. Unordered categorical factors were compared between readmission groups using Pearson χ2 tests. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify predictors of readmission.

Results:

Patients readmitted within 30 and 90 days of hospitalization were more often women (P ≤ .018) and nonwhite (P ≤ .002) and had lower functional capacity (P < .001). In multivariable analysis, white race (odds ratio [OR], 0.50 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.25–0.99]; P = .045) and higher functional capacity (OR, 0.80 [95% CI, 0.68–0.93]; P = .005) were protective against hospital readmission within the first 90 days. Race, sex, and functional capacity remained significant predictors of readmission at 1 year. In multivariable analysis, only race (OR, 0.41 [95% CI, 0.22–0.79]; P = .007) and functional capacity (OR, 0.83 [95% CI, 0.73–0.95]; P = .007) were significant. Early cardiac rehabilitation was not associated with readmission at any time point (P > .05).

Conclusions:

Sex, race, and functional capacity were important predictors of readmission for metabolic syndrome, even when cardiac rehabilitation intake was delayed. Results raise questions about the unique traits of patients with metabolic syndrome and need for novel approaches to improve cardiac rehabilitation utilization and functional capacity in metabolic syndrome.

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