The first episode of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is a threat event in children with end-stage liver disease

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Studies on native liver survival (NLS) after the first episode of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) are rare. Our objective was to evaluate NLS in children up to 1 year after SBP.


A historical cohort study of 18 children followed after the first episode of SBP was conducted. NLS, in-hospital mortality, causes of death, and rate of multidrug-resistant organisms were reported.


Biliary atresia was the most prevalent diagnosis (72.2%); all were Child–Pugh C, and the median age was 1.0 year. The probability of NLS was 77.8, 27.8, and 11.1% at 1, 3 and 6 months, respectively. At 9 months, no child had the native liver. In-hospital mortality was 38.9%, and the main causes of death were septic shock and acute-on-chronic liver failure. Escherichia coli was the predominant organism cultured. Multidrug-resistant organisms were not detected. The cumulative probability of NLS was 77.8% at 1 month, 27.8% at 3 months, and 11.1% at 6 months. At 9-month follow-up, none of children had their native liver. Ascites PMN count cell more than 1000 cells/mm3, positive ascites culture, and prolonged international normalized ratio reached a significant value as predictive factors of NLS and were selected for multivariate analysis. We did not identify independent predictors of survival.


Development of SBP was a late event in children and had a high effect on NLS.

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