In vitroandin vivocharacterization of stem-like cells from canine osteosarcoma and assessment of drug sensitivity
Cancer stem cell (CSC) self-renewing and drug resistance cause treatment failure and tumor recurrence. Osteosarcoma is an aggressive bone tumor characterized by biological and molecular heterogeneity, possibly dependent on CSCs. CSC identification in osteosarcoma and their efficient targeting are still open questions. Spontaneous canine osteosarcoma shares clinical and biological features with the human tumors, representing a model for translational studies. We characterized three CSC-enriched canine osteosarcoma cultures. In serum-free conditions, these CSC cultures grow as anchorage-independent spheroids, show mesenchymal-like properties and in vivo tumorigenicity, recapitulating the heterogeneity of the original osteosarcoma. Osteosarcoma CSCs express stem-related factors (Sox2, Oct4, CD133) and chemokine receptors and ligands (CXCR4, CXCL12) involved in tumor proliferation and self-renewal. Standard drugs for osteosarcoma treatment (doxorubicin and cisplatin) affected CSC-enriched and parental primary cultures, showing different efficacy within tumors. Moreover, metformin, a type-2 diabetes drug, significantly inhibits osteosarcoma CSC viability, migration and self-renewal and, in co-treatment with doxorubicin and cisplatin, enhances drug cytotoxicity. Collectively, we demonstrate that canine osteosarcoma primary cultures contain CSCs exhibiting distinctive sensitivity to anticancer agents, as a reliable experimental model to assay drug efficacy. We also provide proof-of-principle of metformin efficacy, alone or in combination, as pharmacological strategy to target osteosarcoma CSCs.