The unholy trinity of human herpesvirus 8-associated malignancy in a person living with HIV-1

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We report the case of a 45-year-old homosexual man who was diagnosed with HIV-1 infection (nadir CD4+ cell count 138 cells/μl) upon presentation with Kaposi's sarcoma (AIDS Clinical Trials Group stage T0 I1 S0) (Fig. 1a). Kaposi's sarcoma lesions resolved following initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) with tenofovir, emtricitabine and efavirenz combined with local radiotherapy for cosmesis. Persistent generalized lymphadenopathy was also noted at presentation, but histology of an axillary lymph node was benign. The patient had an appropriate response to ART, achieving complete viral suppression and immune reconstitution (CD4+ cell 334 cells/μl) within 6 months.

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