Time course of oxidative stress, inflammation and muscle damage markers for five days after a soccer match: effects of sex and playing position
This study examined the influence of sex and playing position on the time-course of selected oxidative stress, inflammation and muscle damage markers following an official soccer match. Sixty professional soccer players (30 male and 30 female) were divided into three groups, according to their playing position: defenders, midfielders and attackers. Each group consisted of 10 male and 10 female players. Sixty healthy volunteers (30 males and 30 females) served as control. Blood samples were taken before and after the match and daily for five days after the match. Analysis of variance revealed different responses over time between sex and playing positions, as shown by the 3-way interaction, for creatine kinase (CK), protein carbonyls (PC), catalase, fibrinogen (FIB), uric acid (UA), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), reduced glutathione, C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 (IL-6) (p < 0.01).Male players had higher values compared with females of the same playing position, for all oxidative, inflammatory and muscle damage indices (p<0.01). Also, in both sexes, midfielders had higher peaks in all indices compared with defenders (p < 0.05). Five days after the game CK and UA concentrations had not returned to pre-game levels in any exercise group, whereas PC were still elevated in male midfielders and attackers (p < 0.05).These results show that sex and playing position influence the time-course of selected oxidative stress, inflammation and muscle damage markers following an official soccer game. This information should be taken into account by practitioners for the design of training programs following match play.