Clinical and hematological data to group different chronic kidney disease patients: A practical approach to establish different groups of patients

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Abstract

Background

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is the convergent point of several pathological processes, and its evolution is insidious and characterized by a progressive and irreversible loss of kidney function. This impaired function induces the accumulation of uremic toxins and individuals with terminal CKD often have altered physiological responses, including a persistent state of immuno-suppression and development of diseases. A better characterization and stratification of these patients with CKD in different immuno-compromised groups would contribute to more effective and personalized treatments. The focus of this study was to use two parameters to stratify patients with CKD into four separate groups that are representative of different immunological status.

Methods

Patients with CKD were chosen randomly and stratified into four separate groups according to the period of time receiving dialysis treatment and leukocyte blood counts. The amount of apoptotic CD4 T cells were measured in each group of patients, and clinical/hematological parameters were correlated by multivariate analysis with each group.

Results

Observations reveal that one of the four groups of patients with CKD (group 3) had more apoptotic CD4 T cells than the other group; this group also had an increased malnutrition inflammation score (MIS), an elevated Kt/V, and a higher incidence of smoking.

Conclusion

A simple two-parameter-based stratification strategy could be used to design effective immunological therapies that differentiate the degrees of immuno-suppression across groups of patients with CKD.

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