Two novel CPS1 mutations in a case of carbamoyl phosphate synthetase 1 deficiency causing hyperammonemia and leukodystrophy.

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Abstract

BACKGROUND

Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase 1 deficiency (CPS1D) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of the urea cycle, mostly characterized by hyperammonemia and the concomitant leukodystrophy. The onset of CPS1D can be at any age, and the clinical manifestations are variable and atypical. Genetic tests are indispensable for accurate diagnosis of CPS1D on the basis of biochemical tests.

METHODS

Blood tandem mass spectrometric analysis and urea organic acidemia screening were performed on a Chinese neonatal patient with low activity, recurrent seizures, and hyperammonemia. Next-generation sequencing and Sanger sequencing were followed up for making a definite diagnosis. Bioinformatics tools were used for the conservation analysis and pathogenicity predictions of the identified mutations.

RESULTS

Increased lactate in urea and decreased citrulline in blood were detected in the patient. Two novel mutations (c.173G>T, p.G58V in exon 2 and c.796G>A, p.G266R in exon 8) in CPS1 identified in the neonatal patient were found through coseparation verification. Both of the two mutations were predicted to be deleterious, and the two relevant amino acids exerted highly evolutionarily conserved. The final diagnosis of the patient was compound heterozygous CPS1D.

CONCLUSION

This study described the specific clinical characteristics and the variations of physiological and biochemical indices in a Chinese neonatal patient with CPS1D, which facilitated the diagnosis and mechanism research of the disease. Two novel causative missense mutations were identified, which enriched the mutation spectrum of CPS1D in China and worldwide. Advice of prenatal diagnosis was given to the family for a new pregnancy.

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