To examine (1) if the use of benzodiazepines and antidepressants during pregnancy may increase the risk of preterm birth and/or low birth weight (LBW), and, if yes, (2) which types of benzodiazepines or antidepressants have stronger influences.Methods
A case-control study was performed using a large claims database in Japan. Cases were mothers who had given birth to preterm and/or LBW infants between 2005 and 2014 (737 with preterm births and 1615 with LBW). Controls were mothers who had neither experienced preterm birth nor given birth to an LBW infant.Results
Overall, 42 058 births were included. The maternal use of benzodiazepines was significantly associated with an increased risk of preterm birth (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 2.03; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11–3.69, P < .05), while the maternal use of benzodiazepines was not significantly associated with LBW (adjusted OR, 1.55; 0.96–2.50). The use of antidepressants was not significantly associated with both preterm deliveries (adjusted OR, 0.57; 0.08–4.16) and LBW (adjusted OR, 0.56; 0.14–2.29).Conclusions
Benzodiazepine use was associated with increased risk of preterm birth but not with LBW. Antidepressant use was not associated with both preterm deliveries and LBW.