Malaria—Update on Antimalarial Resistance and Treatment Approaches
Malaria continues to be a major cause of childhood mortality and was responsible for an estimated 303,000 (165,000–450,000) deaths in children under 5 years old in 2015. However, this represents a 60% reduction in mortality since 2000,1 one of biggest successes in terms of the Millennium Development Goals. Central to this achievement was the widespread deployment of effective tools for prevention and treatment, including insecticide treated nets and Artemisinin-based Combination Therapies (ACTs). The recent emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum parasites resistant to ACTs, and mosquitoes resistant to the pyrethroids, the most commonly used insecticide, threaten to reverse these gains, and the hopes of eliminating malaria. This review provides an update on antimalarial resistance and approaches to treatment.