Local and systemic coagulation marker response to musculocutaneous flap ischemia–reperfusion injury and remote ischemic conditioning: An experimental study in a porcine model
Remote ischemic conditioning (RIC) administered by non-lethal periods of extremity ischemia and reperfusion attenuates ischemia–reperfusion injury. We aimed to investigate the local and systemic coagulation marker response to flap ischemia–reperfusion injury, and the effects of RIC on coagulation markers following flap ischemia–reperfusion injury.Methods
A musculocutaneous latissimus dorsi flap was subjected to 4 h of ischemia followed by 7 h of reperfusion in 16 female Danish Landrace pigs (39 kg). Systemic venous blood samples were collected 1 h before flap reperfusion. Flap and systemic venous blood samples were collected at reperfusion and hourly during reperfusion. We measured thrombin generation, fibrinogen, von Willebrand factor, antithrombin, thrombin-antithrombin complex, activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), and prothrombin time (PT). RIC was performed 1 h before flap reperfusion in the intervention group by three 10-min periods of hind limb ischemia and reperfusion (n = 8). RIC was not performed in the control group (n = 8).Results
Local and systemic coagulation marker changes were comparable following flap ischemia–reperfusion injury. Flap ischemia–reperfusion injury reduced thrombin generation lag time from 2.0 ± 0.3 to 1.6 ± 0.3 min (P < .001), time-to-peak thrombin from 3.5 ± 0.3 to 3.0 ± 0.5 min (P = .001), peak thrombin from 79.6 ± 8.1 to 74.5 ± 7.1 nM (P = .033), endogenous thrombin potential from 211 ± 24 to 197 ± 19 nM × min (P = .01), antithrombin from 0.91 ± 0.07 to 0.79 ± 0.06 103 IU/l (P = .002), and aPTT from 37 ± 21 to 21 ± 9 s (P = .017). RIC increased peak thrombin (P < .001), endogenous thrombin potential (P < .001), and aPTT (P = .019).Conclusions
The local coagulation marker response to musculocutaneous flap ischemia–reperfusion could be measured systemically by moderate hypercoagulation. RIC did not substantially influence coagulation markers following musculocutaneous flap ischemia–reperfusion injury.