A20 haploinsufficiency (HA20): clinical phenotypes and disease course of patients with a newly recognised NF-kB-mediated autoinflammatory disease

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Abstract

Objectives

The association between mutations in TNFAIP3, encoding the NF-kB regulatory protein A20, and a new autoinflammatory disease has recently been recognised. This study aims at describing the clinical phenotypes and disease course of patients with A20 haploinsufficiency (HA20).

Methods

Data for all cases from the initial publication, and additional cases identified through collaborations since, were collected using standardised data collection forms.

Results

A total of 16 patients (13 female) from seven families with a genetic diagnosis of HA20 were included. The disease commonly manifested in early childhood (range: first week of life to 29 years of age). The main clinical symptoms were recurrent oral, genital and/or gastrointestinal ulcers (16/16), musculoskeletal (9/16) and gastrointestinal complaints (9/16), cutaneous lesions (8/16), episodic fever (7/16), and recurrent infections (7/16). Clinical phenotypes varied considerably, even within families. Relapsing-remitting disease course was most common, and one patient died. Laboratory abnormalities included elevated acute-phase reactants and fluctuating presence of various autoantibodies such as antinuclear antibodies (4/10 patients tested) and anti-dsDNA (2/5). Tissue biopsy of different sites revealed non-specific chronic inflammation (6/12 patients tested), findings consistent with class V lupus nephritis in one patient, and pustules and normal results in two patients each. All patients were treated: 4/16 received colchicine and 12/16 various immunosuppressive agents. Cytokine inhibitors effectively suppressed systemic inflammation in 7/9 patients.

Conclusions

Early-onset recurrent oral, genital and/or gastrointestinal ulcers are the hallmark feature of HA20. Frequency and intensity of other clinical manifestations varied highly. Treatment regimens should be based on disease severity, and cytokine inhibitors are often required to control relapses.

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