Low Expression of Protocadherin-8 Promotes the Progression of Ovarian Cancer

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Abstract

Objective

Ovarian cancer (OC) is the second most lethal gynecological cancer among women throughout the world. Protocadherin-8 (PCDH8) could function as a candidate tumor suppressor. However, the link between PCDH8 and OC development is poorly understood.

Materials and Methods

A total of 68 OC patients were retrospectively enrolled. Clinical information was collected and cancer tissues were used for tissue microarray. The PCDH8 expression was determined on tissue microarray by immunohistochemical staining, and PCDH8 protein was detected in cancer tissues and adjacent tissue by western blotting. Human OC cell lines (SKOV-3 and OVCAR-3) were used to assess the effects of PCDH8 overexpression by western blot and real-time PCR analysis. 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide cell proliferation assay, wound healing migration assay, colony formation assay and invasion assays were performed to assess the influence of PCDH8 on cell function. Cells with Luc-nonspecific Lentiviral or Luc-Lentiviral with PCDH8 gene were subcutaneously injected into nude mice to observe the effect of PCDH8 gene on tumor growth. Bioluminescence imaging was used to observe tumor volume.

Results

We found a low expression of PCDH8 in OC tissues versus the corresponding adjacent tissue. The PCDH8 expression, International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage, metastasis and recurrence were the independent prognostic factors for over-all survival by multivariate analyses. Furthermore, the patients with recurrence presented a low level of PCDH8 in OC tissues, and patients with advanced tumor stage also had a low PCDH8 expression. Importantly, the low expression of PCDH8 in OC tissues had a poor prognosis with a low overall survival rate. Overexpression of PCDH8 could inhibit OC cell growth/proliferation, migration, invasion, and colony formation in vitro. In vivo experiments also proved that overexpression of PCDH8 could inhibit OC cell growth/proliferation.

Conclusions

Protocadherin-8 might be considered as a candidate tumor suppressor and play a crucial role in the progression of OC.

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